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The Northern Migration
Movin' On: American Migration in the Nineteenth Century
James Oliver Horton, George Washington University
The Exodus: Address
John M. Langston
R.H. Arby (Washington D.C., 1879)
United States. Census Office. Statistical view of the United States, embracing its territory, population—white, free colored, and slave—moral and social condition, industry, property, and revenue; the...
A.O.P. Nicholson, Public Printer (Washington, 1854)
Transporting Free Negroes to Ohio from 1815 to 1858
from The Journal of Negro History, vol. 1, no. 3 (June 1916)
C. A. Powell, B. T. Kavanaugh and David Christy
The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War
from The Journal of Negro History, vol. 1, no. 1 (January 1916)
C. G. Woodson
Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War
from The Journal of Negro History
C.G. Woodson
Statistics of the Colored People of Philadelphia
Benjamin C. Bacon
(Philadelphia, 1856)
Philadelphia-Negros of Seventh Ward, 1896: Birthplace-Males by Five Age Periods
from The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study
W.E.B. Du Bois
Published for the University (Philadelphia, 1899)
Free Man of Color: The Autobiography of Willis Augustus Hodges
Willis Augustus Hodges
University of Tennessee (Knoxville)
Occupation of Philadephia Negros
from The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study
W. E. B. Du Bois
Published for the University (Philadelphia, 1899)
Statistical view of the United States, embracing its territory, population - white, free colored, and slave - moral and social condition, industry, property and revenue
United States Census Office
N/A
Chapter 1 - "Beloved Africans"
from Speak Out in Thunder Tones: Letters and Other Writings by Black Northerners, 1787-1865
Dorothy Sterling
Doubleday (Garden City, NY, 1973)
The Negro at Work in New York City; A Study in Economic Progress
George Edmund Haynes
Columbia University, Longmans, Green & Co., Agents (New York, 1912)
The Economic Condition of the Negroes of New York Prior to 1861
from The Journal of Negro History, vol. 6, no. 2 (April 1921)
Lindsay, Arnett G.
Black Female Workers: Live-in Domestics in Detroit, 1860-1880
from Phylon, vol. 45, no. 2 (1984)
Bogart Leashore
Banishment of the People of Colour from Cincinnati
from The Journal of Negro History, vol. 8, no. 3. (July 1923)
William Mills, Benjamin Hopkins, and George Lee
An African Voice Among the River Folk of the Hudson River Valley: The Diary of an Ex-Slave, 1827-1866
from Afro-Americans in New York Life and History (July 1999)
A. J. Williams-Myers
Aristocrats of Color: South and North The Black Elite 1880-1920
from The Journal of Southern History, vol. 54, no. 1 (February 1988)
Willard B. Gatewood, Jr.
Chapter 5 - "A City of Refuge"
from Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720-1840
Gary B. Nash
Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA, 1988)
Chapter 7 - "Free Sailors and the Struggle with Slavery"
from Black Jacks: African American Seaman in the Age of Sail
W. Jeffrey Bolster
Harvard University Press (Cambridge, MA , 1997)
Report on the Deliverance of Citizens Liable to be Sold as Slaves
Massachusetts General Court. Special Committee on Deliverance of Citizens Liable to be Sold as Slaves.
s.n. (Boston, 1839)
We Best Can Instruct Our Own People: New York African Americans in the Freedmen's Schools, 1861-1875
from Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, vol. 12, no. 1 (January 1988)
Ronald E. Butchart
Chapter 2 - "Patterns"
from Before the Ghetto: Black Detroit in the Nineteenth Century
David M. Katzman
University of Illinois Press (Urbana, 1973)
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