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The Northern Migration

Abdy, Edward Strutt. Journal of a residence and tour in the United States of North America, from April, 1833, to October, 1834. London: J. Murray, 1835.

African Repository 5 (1829): 185

Bacon, Benjamin C. Statistics of the Colored People of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: Board of Education, 1859.

Baur, John Edward. "Mulatto Machivelli, Jean Pierre Boyer, and the Haiti of His Day." Journal of Negro History 32 (1947): 307.

Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974.

Berlin, Ira, and Philip D. Morgan., eds. Cultivation and Culture: Labor and the Shaping of Slave Life in the Americas. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1993.

Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African Americans Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Clarke, Lewis. Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clarke, during a captivity of more than twenty-five years, among the Algerines of Kentucky, one of the so called Christian states of North American. Boston: D.H. Eli, 1845.

Coleman, Charles L. A History of the Negro Baptists in Boston. Master's thesis, Andover Newton Theological Seminary, 1956.

Curry, Leonard. The free Black in Urban America, 1800 -1850: The shadow of the dream. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Dabney, Wendell P. Cincinnati's Colored Citizens: Historical, Sociological and Biographical. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1926.

Daily Evening Gazette, August 18, 1841.

Daniels, Douglas Henry. Pioneer Urbanites: A social and cultural history of Black San Francisco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.

Finkelman, Paul. "Prelude to the Fourteenth Amendment: Black Legal Rights in the Antebellum North." Rutgers Law Journal 17 (1986): 415.

Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred Moss, Jr. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Africa-Americans, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Franklin. John Hope, and Loren Schweninger. Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. New York: Oxford University Press. 1999.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction, America's unfinished revolution, 1863 -1877. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1989.

Gatewoods, Jr. William B. Free Man of Color: The autobiography of Willis Augustus Hodges. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1890.

Genius of Universal Emancipation 4 (1825)

Higginbotham, Jr., A. Leon. Shades of Freedom: Racial politics and Presumptions of the American Legal Process. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

History of Black Americans. 3 vols. Westport: Conn, Greenwood Press, 1983.

Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton. In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community, and Protest among Northern Free Blacks, 1700 - 1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, Study 00003: Historical Demographic, Economic, and Social Data: U.S. Census, 1800 and 1860.

Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary of Pictorial History of the African American Role in the Westward Expansion of the United States. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

King, Henry. "A year of the Exodus in Kansas." Scribner's Monthly 8 (1880): 211.

Malone, Ann Patton. Sweet Chariot: slave family and old structure in Nineteenth-century Louisiana. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Manuscript Records of Allen Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1824.

Miller, Floyd J. The search for a black nationality: Black emigration and colonization, 1787 - 1863. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975.

Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Proceedings of the Ohio Antislavery Convention Held at Putnam on the Twenty-second, Twenty-third, and Twenty-fourth of April, 1835 (undated), 19.

Painter, Nell Irvin. Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas After Reconstruction. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1976.

Perry, Lewis, and Michael Fellman., eds. Antislavery Reconsidered: Fourteen new essays. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.

Powers, Jr. Bernard E. Black Charlestonians: a social history, 1822 -1885. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994.

Putney, Martha S. Black Sailors: Afro-American Merchant Seamen and Whalemen Prior to the Civil War. West Point: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Radkey, Edwin S. Black Exodus: Black Nationalist and Back-to-Africa Movements, 1890 -1910. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969.

Randolph, Peter. From Slave Cabin to Pulpit: The autobiography of Rev. Randolph, the Southern question illustrated and sketched and slave life. Boston: J.H. Earle, 1893.

Records of the Treasurer's Office, 1843, Oberlin College Archives. Rice, Charles Duncan. The rise and fall of Black Slavery. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.

Roark, James L. Masters Without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1977.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., ed. The Cotton Kingdom; A traveller's observations on cotton and slavery in the American slave States.New York: Knopf, 1953.

Sterling, Dorothy., ed. Speak out in Thunder Tones: Letters and Other Writings by Black Northerners, 1787 - 1865. Garden City: Doubleday & Co. Inc, 1973.

Tadman, Michael. Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Tyler-McGraw, Marie. "Richmond Free Blacks and African Colonization, 1816 - 1832." Journal of American Studies 21 (1987): 207.

Union Baptist Church records, 1834, 1837, Union Baptist Church, Cincinnati.

U.S. Census, manuscripts, 1850 and 1860.

Williams, James. Narrative of James Williams, an American slave, who was for several years a driver on a cotton plantation in Alabama. New York: Americans Anti-Slavery Society, 1838.

Winch, Julie. Philadelphia's Black Elite: Activism, Accommodation, and the Struggle for Autonomy, 1787 -1848. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

Wright, George C. Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865-1940: Lynchings, mob rule, and "legal lynchings." Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

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